Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2023


The intent of this action research project was to assess the impact of fact fluency when implementing the Direct Instruction (DI) Flashcard intervention for students in special education using curriculum-based measurements. The participants were elementary students who all received specially designed instruction in the area of math due to their Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) in that area. In addition to the body of research in place regarding fact fluency and the DI Flashcard intervention, this study also took into account the students’ initial skill levels as outlined in their IEPs. The intervention occurred over three weeks in a special education classroom. Three sets of flashcards were used throughout the intervention for all participants. Pre-test and post-test data were collected and compared. An improvement was not shown between pre-test and post-test scores. IEP progress monitoring data did show marked improvement for all participants. Study limitations were included and future research recommendations were offered.