Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2023


The purpose of this action research paper was to explore the effects of educational interventions using colors and symbols on orchestra members with Autism Spectrum Disorder. A fifth week action study was conducted using visual support for effective musical expression in an orchestra composed of members with autism and intellectual disabilities. The red glasses marked on the sheet music of the members should see the conductor and play according to conductor’s hand signals, and the number of times they could not play according to the conductor's hand signals was checked every week for 5 weeks to collect and analyze data. The educational intervention using colors and symbols was effective for all members, but the difference in intervention effect was large for member with autism. Positive responses from parents and team members to educational interventions using colors and symbols in structured surveys suggest more use of visual aids. Future research will investigate the effect of educational interventions using various colors and symbols on the performance of orchestra members, and whether the use of visual tools is helpful for orchestra operation.