Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2022


The purpose of this action research study was to determine the impact of teaching computer science to kindergarten using only unplugged learning rather than plugged or a mixture of plugged and unplugged learning on engagement. Participants included 71 kindergarten and transitional kindergarten students in a public school in rural central Iowa. Data was collected through behavior and off-task reminder tallies, as well as assessment data over nine classes equal to a trimester’s number of computer science classes. Students were taught using either strictly unplugged methods using games, books, manipulatives, and movement or a plugged/online curriculum using online puzzles and videos, including a couple of unplugged lessons. The study found that unplugged learning positively impacted behavior and off-task behavior. No statistical difference was shown in academic achievement; however, it is noted that more topics were covered in the unplugged group than that of the plugged group over the same amount of time. Overall, unplugged learning in kindergarten computer science class positively impacts engagement. The researcher recommends further studies extending the entire year of kindergarten, further studies extending the research through first grade should be considered as well.