This literature review discusses the many effects, both positive and negative, of educational technology on 21st century students. The specific problem at hand is determining the true effects of this technology integration on students’ overall levels of academic engagement and achievement. More specifically, the purpose of this research is to determine the potential effects of technology integration on middle school students’ engagement and achievement. The review begins by examining the history of technology in education and how it has progressed over the years. Moving forward, the review then examines the perceived role of technology in education. From there, the review examines the revealed need for proper professional development for teachers in order to afford them the opportunity to integrate and implement educational technology in appropriate ways in order to allow for the most positive effects possible on student engagement and achievement. Moving forward, the review discusses the many positive effects of technology on student engagement and achievement prior to exploring the contrary negative effects of the technology found by other researchers. The review closes by exploring a major gap that limited the intended research, discovering that there is little research on the effects of technology on middle school students’ engagement and achievement, thus causing need for further research in this specific area in the future.