Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2021


Restraint and seclusion are harmful practices that are often imposed upon vulnerable student populations. This literature review examines the prevalence of such practices, the ethical considerations associated with their use, and effective strategies for limiting their use. The research reveals the importance of evidence-based approaches in reducing restraint and seclusion practices. Models that utilize compassionate, trauma-informed care and promote emotional regulation strategies are shown to be the most successful in reducing the use of these detrimental behavior management practices. One specific approach, Collaborative and Proactive Solutions (CPS), was found to incorporate each of these elements into a model that minimizes the use of restraint and seclusion.