Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2021


This action research study investigated the effect of cold-calling on voluntary participation in a middle school science classroom. Four sections of an eighth grade science class were observed: two of the sections were with a teacher who used cold-calling often, and two of the sections were with a teacher who does not use cold-calling. An observer recorded the number of students who volunteered to answer a question after it was first asked. Although the students in the class with the teacher who used cold-calling frequently had higher rates of voluntary participation, the results were not statistically significant; therefore, there is not enough evidence in this research to confidently claim that cold-calling increases voluntary participation in middle school science classrooms.