Math instruction is taught using a variety of methods and strategies. This literature review compares two strategies of math instruction: the instruction of number sense versus the process of memorizing math facts for students. The literature review identifies various math strategies for both number sense instruction and memorization of math facts. This literature review synthesizes studies published in scholarly journals on the topics of number sense, memorizing math facts, timed tests, math anxiety, and teacher perspectives. Studies from this review reveal that number sense instruction is beneficial for student learning to build the foundation for future mathematical knowledge before the rote memorization of math facts.