Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2020


This literature review discusses flexible seating in the classroom. It explains specific types of flexible seating that was found in recent relevant research most often. These seating types are therapy balls, inflatable cushions, standing desks, and foot fidgets. Next, the importance of the physical layout and environment of the classroom is examined. This literature review goes on to explore the benefits and challenges of flexible seating. Some benefits are engagement, positive behavior, movement, social impacts, and student choice. Some challenges are expense, storage and space, discomfort and balance, and incorrect use. There are multiple considerations educators need to take when deciding whether to implement flexible seating into the classroom, such as special needs, preferences, and available space. Students with autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity concerns appear to improve levels of engagement and/or behavior when using flexible seating. This literature review also discusses student, teacher, and parent perceptions of flexible seating, all of which are mostly positive. Further study is needed on long-term effects of this intervention, how students transition to new classrooms with or without flexible seating, using it in higher grade levels, and in how to implement flexible seating into a classroom.