Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2020


With higher demands for student achievement and teacher efficacy, school districts have shifted from traditional professional development methods to instructional coaching. This literature review presents research on various models and analyzes the challenges that districts have discovered upon implementation. There are many factors that influence instructional coaches’ effectiveness, yet their flexibility and collaborative skills remain among the most important. In all models, instructional coaches must adapt to each teachers’ needs and juggle the variety of roles they are asked to fulfill. To help instructional coaches distribute their time effectively, research shows that districts must provide clear direction and support for instructional coaches, especially at the secondary level. Therefore, I intend for this literature review to provide insight on how to adapt established instructional coaching models to improve their sustainability and effectiveness for secondary educators.