Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 2019


The purpose of this action research study was to determine whether students would show more growth when using paper and pencil activities or technology during small group instruction in mathematics, specifically on the skill of telling time. Data was collected from ten second-grade students over a five-week period. The two intervention groups involved in the study met for equal amounts of time and were given the same tests for data collection purposes. The test questions were randomized pictures of clocks that required students to tell time to the nearest five minutes. One intervention group practiced the skill of telling time using an iPad app. The iPad app gave students game choices, as well as rewards. The other intervention group did not use technology, but rather practiced their skill using traditional paper and pencil activities. The study collects quantitative data to determine which intervention group showed more academic growth.