The current study investigated the effects of cultural self-construal, interpersonal relationship harmony, and high school environment on self-esteem. One-hundred and one American participants and 99 Japanese participants completed self-report surveys to assess each construct. Results showed that self-esteem of students who value harmonious relationships was protected from controlling teaching in both American and Japanese students, whereas self-esteem of students who value personal interests over harmonious relationships was protected in the same context, but only among Japanese and not American students.
Oura, Naoko and Chi, Terry
"Impact on Self-Esteem by Cultural Differences in Educational and Interpersonal Contexts,"
Northwestern Review: Vol. 1
, Article 11.
Available at: http://nwcommons.nwciowa.edu/northwesternreview/vol1/iss1/11